Prostaglandins (biologically active substances)
Mechanism of action of Misoprostol:
While it acts similarly to prostaglandin E1, Misoprostol is not a steroid found in nature. The chemical irritates thstomach lining and calms the uterus’s smooth musclesus. The use of this drug in this manner may help protect cells from harm the gastrointestinal mucosa secretes more mucus and NaHCO3 because it makes direct contact with the parietal layer of the stomach mucosa.
Misoprostol increases the size and tone of the cervix by triggering contractions of the myometrium’s smooth muscles a result, the contents of the uterus may be removed more efficiently and with more ease, leading to a successful abortion.
Misoprostol is immediately absorbed after being taken. The medication has a solid protein-bound concentration in plasma (85%). In addition, misoprostolic acid has a role in the drug’s metabolism in the liver and the intestinal lining.
After 30–40 minutes, the substance’s maximum concentration will remain constant. Afterward, the kidneys get rid of 80-85% of the drug, and the bile secretes the remaining 15-20% of Misoprostol. Estimates put the half-life at anything between 20 and 40 minutes. The elimination half-life of medicine is increased by a factor of two in the presence of renal diseases.
Indications for Misoprostol:
Misoprostol is used to prevent the development of peptic ulcer (gastric ulcer), which develops against the background of long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to treat acute gastric ulcers and/or duodenal ulcers. Misoprostol is prescribed in cases of increased risk of ulceration.
Cytolog is used to terminate pregnancies in the early stages (up to 77 days) combined with Mifepristone.
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and liver associated with prostaglandin dependence;
- Individual intolerance;
- Bronchial asthma;
- Endocrinopathies (diabetes mellitus, adrenal dysfunction, etc.);
- Hormone-dependent neoplasms;
- Lactation and breastfeeding;
Children and adolescents under 18 years of age are prohibited from taking Misoprostol. In addition, when dehydrating the body, the drug should be taken with extreme caution.
Abdominal discomfort, excessive gas production (flatulence), dyspepsia (nausea and vomiting), and stool problems are all possible GI complications (constipation, diarrhea). Reproductive system complications include menstrual cycle disturbances, abnormal uterine bleeding, and uncomfortable feelings in the lower abdomen caused by an active contraction of the central muscular layer of the uterus.
Misoprostol may cause adverse responses, including rash, swelling, itching, etc. The drug’s use in women also carries the risk of various side effects, including a change in body weight (both down and up), asthenia, weakness, and weariness. In addition, women beyond menopause have sometimes been reported to have convulsive contractions.
Features of interaction with other drugs
When used together, NSAIDs and Misoprostol might cause peripheral edema and elevated transaminases (ALT, AST). Diazepam, Antipyrine, Diclofenac, Aspirin, Piroxicam, Indomethacin, and Naproxen showed no clinical signs of interaction. Misoprostol usage elevates the blood level of Propranolol marginally.